“Unlike the horizontal or vertical format, which imparts its own directional energy to the composition, the square tends to exert a uniform pressure on all sides. To suggest movement, therefore, a painter must rely entirely on the internal elements of the composition.”Mitchell Albala, Movement in Composition
A horizontal format leads our eye sideways, a vertical up and down. In a square we bounce off the equal-length edges as if we were in a pinball machine. It’s our composition’s job to guide our eye around in a calmer, controlled, interesting journey.